[51] Buckner responded to Grant's demand: SIR:—The distribution of the forces under my command, incident to an unexpected change of commanders, and the overwhelming force under your command, compel me, notwithstanding the brilliant success of the Confederate arms yesterday, to accept the ungenerous and unchivalrous terms which you propose. The Union strength includes both the Army and Navy units. Lithograph, hand colored. [55], The casualties at Fort Donelson were heavy, primarily because of the large Confederate surrender. Für die Nordstaaten war dieser Erfolg ein strategisch wichtiger Sieg. Buckner gained such a reputation for fair dealings with the Indians, that the Oglala Lakota tribe called him Young Chief, and their leader, Yellow Bear, refused to treat with anyone but Buckner. His prediction proved correct, as negotiations between the federal government and Mormon leaders eased tensions between the two. View stories about Simon B Buckner at Fold3.com." [88] The following year, he visited his son, who was stationed in Texas, and toured old Mexican–American War battlefields where he had served. [64] Though Buckner had favored George H. Pendleton, he loyally supported the party's nominee throughout the campaign. There was general agreement that Fort Donelson was probably untenable. General Halleck, in a telegraphic dispatch of February 16, from Saint Louis to General McClellan, said he had invested Fort Donelson with a force of 50,000 men, and he had no doubt all communication and supplies were cut off. On land the well-armed Union soldiers surrounded the Confederates, while the Union boats, although damaged, still controlled the river. Richard Oglesby and John McArthur were hit hardest; they withdrew in a generally orderly manner to the rear for regrouping and resupply. Smith formed his two remaining brigades to make an attack. Discover how General Ulysses Grant demanded unconditional surrender from Confederate General Simon Buckner. Rumors began to swirl in both Union and Confederate camps that Smith and Buckner would not surrender, but would fall back to Mexico with soldiers who remained loyal to the Confederacy. Camp near Fort Donelson February 16, 1862. Grants Operationen gegen Fort Donelson dauerte von 11 bis 16 Februar 1862. Shortly after their wedding, he was assigned to Fort Snelling and later to Fort Atkinson on the Arkansas River in present-day Kansas. For unknown reasons Haynie never fully took control and the attack was repulsed. It was the North’s first major victory of the Civil War, opening the way into the very heart of the Confederacy. [78], After his term as governor, Buckner returned to Glen Lily. The Confederates took control of Forge Road and a key section of Wynn's Ferry Road, opening a route to Nashville,[36] but Buckner's delay provided time for Lew Wallace's men to reinforce McClernand's retreating forces before they were completely routed. Stickles, pp. [37] The following day he was promoted to major general[38] and ordered to Chattanooga, Tennessee, to join Gen. Braxton Bragg's Army of Mississippi. He later served as the 30th Governor of Kentucky. A lone regiment from Buckner's division—the 30th Tennessee—was designated to stay in the trenches and prevent a Federal pursuit. A second messenger arrived at Wallace's camp in tears, crying, "Our right flank is turned! Buckner served on the court martial of Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws after that subordinate of Longstreet's was charged with poor performance at Knoxville. Ein Grossteil der konföderierten Truppen in Tennessee und Kentucky war geschlagen. Western Theater commander Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston sent Buckner to be one of four brigadier generals defending the fort. [42], Following the Battle of Perryville, Buckner was reassigned to command the District of the Gulf, fortifying the defenses of Mobile, Alabama. They joked about their time in Mexico and the incompetence of General Pillow [35]. Buckner married Mary Jane Kingsbury on May 2, 1850, at her aunt's home in Old Lyme, Connecticut. Walke retreated several miles below the fort, but soon returned and continued shelling the water batteries. Once past the fixed river batteries, Fort Donelson would have been defenseless. Only about 150 of these bills were of a general nature; the rest were special interest bills passed for the private gain of legislators and those in their constituencies. Although rightfully in command of two of the three regiments, Morrison volunteered to turn over command once the attack was under way; however, when the attack began, Morrison was wounded, eliminating any leadership ambiguity. After successfully capturing Fort Henry on the Tennessee River, Admiral Foote's gunboats moved back up the Tennessee, down the Ohio, and up the Cumberland River toward Fort Donelson. 257–63, 265, cites 12,392. The damage to the fleet was significant and it retreated downriver. [59] The surrender became official when Smith endorsed it on June 2, (Only Brigadier General Stand Watie held out longer; he surrendered the last Confederate land forces on June 23, 1865).[59]. If Grant had been able to move quickly, he might have taken Fort Donelson on February 8. Grant began plans to resume his assault in the morning, although neglecting to close the escape route that Pillow had opened. General A. Gen. John B. Floyd, launched a surprise attack, led by his second-in-command, Brig. On October 10 of the same year, Buckner's sister died, and he was left alone. Gen. Daniel S. Donelson, who selected its site and began construction in 1861. The Union capture of the Confederate fort near the Tennessee–Kentucky border opened the Cumberland River, an important avenue for the invasion of the South. McClernand's right flank, which faced Pillow, had insufficient men to reach overflowing Lick Creek, so it was left unanchored. [15] The garrison troops were commanded by Col. John W. Head and the cavalry by Col. Nathan Bedford Forrest. It was considerably more formidable than Fort Henry. It was the North’s first major victory of the Civil War, opening the way into the very heart of the Confederacy. His administration was rocked by scandal when state treasurer James "Honest Dick" Tate absconded with $250,000 from the state's treasury. [15] Just over a year later, he resigned the post in protest over the academy's compulsory chapel attendance policy. Floyd and Buckner did not like the idea of having their troops besieged in Fort Donelson. Die Schlacht um Fort Donelson war eine Schlacht auf dem westlichen Kriegsschauplatz des Amerikanischen Bürgerkrieges, die vom 12. bis 16. Following his resignation, he was assigned to a recruiting post at Fort Columbus. The attack started well, and after two hours of heavy fighting, Pillow's men pushed McClernand's line back and opened the escape route. After the war, Buckner accepted an invitation to return to West Point to teach infantry tactics. [21] He was appointed inspector general of Kentucky in 1860. Grant's army now divided Confederate Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston's two main forces: P.G.T. Floyd's background was political, not military, but he was nevertheless the senior brigadier general on the Cumberland River. On April 3, 1857, he was appointed adjutant general of Illinois by Governor William Henry Bissell. "[34] This time Wallace sent a brigade, under Col. Charles Cruft, to aid McClernand. These trenches, located on a commanding ridge and fronted by a dense abatis of cut trees and limbs stuck into the ground and pointing outward,[17] were backed up by artillery and manned by Buckner and his Bowling Green troops on the right (with his flank anchored on Hickman Creek), and Johnson/Pillow on the left (with his flank near the Cumberland River). The small town was important for Union forces to maintain communication with Louisville if they decided to press southward to Bowling Green and Nashville. [10], In May 1846, Buckner resigned his teaching position to fight in the Mexican–American War, enlisting with the 6th U.S. Infantry Regiment. [45], In late August, Union Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside approached Buckner's position at Knoxville. Gott, pp. An alternative might have been to overrun the batteries, probably at night as would be done successfully in the 1863 Vicksburg Campaign. The Chicago Tribune wrote that "Chicago reeled mad with joy." [34], The asperity of these notes was only superficial; Buckner greeted his old friend warmly when Grant arrived to accept the surrender. [42] The intention was to open an escape route for retreat to Nashville, Tennessee. [15] The Union forces proceeded about 5 miles (8 km) on the two main roads leading between the two forts. The Union troops, unable to sleep in the cold weather, were not caught entirely by surprise, but Grant was. It was in this attack that Union troops in the West first heard the famous, unnerving rebel yell. [1][7], On July 1, 1840, Buckner enrolled at the United States Military Academy. Over 16,000 Confederate troops were now in Fort Donelson. The Confederates responded with shots from their long-range guns and eventually hit the gunboat. Despite two hours of repeated counterattacks, the Confederates could not repel Smith from the captured earthworks. Bragg ordered Buckner to fall back to the Hiwassee River. Shortly after his inauguration, the Rowan County War escalated to vigilantism, when residents of the county organized a posse and killed several of the leaders of the feud. Ultimately, Palmer and Buckner received just over one percent of the vote in the election. [25] After Confederate Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk occupied Columbus, Kentucky, violating the state's neutrality, Buckner accepted a commission as a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army on September 14, 1861, and was followed by many of the men he formerly commanded in the state militia. Buckner's delay did not prevent the Confederate attack from opening a corridor for an escape from the besieged fort. [69], On June 10, 1885, Buckner married Delia Claiborne of Richmond, Virginia. Buckner assembled 61 companies to defend Kentucky's neutrality. Beauregard at Columbus, Kentucky, with 12,000 men, and William J. Hardee at Bowling Green, Kentucky, with 22,000 men. THE BATTLE AT FORT DONELSON. Buckner vetoed 60 of these special interest bills, more than had been vetoed by the previous ten governors combined. [1] In 1895, he was one of four candidates nominated for a seat in the U.S. Senate — the others being the incumbent, J. C. S. Blackburn; outgoing governor John Y. Pillow and Floyd were able to escape, as did cavalry commander Col. Nathan Bedford Forrest.[31]. Halleck attempted to convince his own rival, Don Carlos Buell, to take command of the campaign to get his additional forces engaged. [77], When a tax cut passed over Buckner's veto in 1890 drained the state treasury, the governor loaned the state enough money to remain solvent until tax revenue came in. Altogether, the Union forces numbered nearly 25,000 men, although at the start of the battle, only 15,000 were available. Smith's two-brigade attack quickly seized the outer line of entrenchments on the Confederate right from the 30th Tennessee, commanded by Col. John W. Head, who had been left behind from Buckner's division. By 9:30 a.m., as the lead Union brigades were falling back, Nathan Bedford Forrest urged Bushrod Johnson to launch an all-out attack on the disorganized troops. 237–40; Woodworth, p. 115; Eicher, p. 178; Cooling. [27], As soon as Foote arrived, Grant urged him to attack the fort's river batteries. Despite Grant's success to date, Halleck had little confidence in him, considering Grant to be reckless. On February 15, with the fort surrounded, the Confederates, commanded by Brig. Fort Donelson was a large earthen fort surrounded by a ring of smaller earthworks, which made it a much more difficult place for Grant to capture. [19], Still interested in military affairs, Buckner joined the Illinois State Militia of Cook County as a major. All Confederate property was to be turned over to the Union. 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